The Green and the Red : Revolutionary Republicanism and Socialism in Irish History: 1848-1923
After 1848 political revolution disappears in England and grows in Ireland. Like countries in southern and eastern Europe, Ireland was not developing its population, technology, wealth, or its middle class as was England. Celtic Ireland was at the edge of extinction. How did the Irish turn this around? There were three kinds of response to this challenge: One acquiescence, supporting the Act of Union with 'Great Britain' (1800); Two, compromise, partial administrative repeal of the Act of Union, 'Home Rule'; Three, fight for an independent Irish republic by revolutionary means, like George Washington in 1776. Our analysis focuses on the third response, the Fenians, but the others are always in the picture.
How do the Fenians expect to make a revolution successfully? English monarchs, Tory politicians, and English governments spared no military cost to prevent any George Washington allied with France or Germany at their back-door. To discover the revolutionary answers to our question the author goes to the general history and to a detailed analysis of the Fenian social organization, leadership, value perspectives during four time periods. What is the movement's desired future, republican ('green') or socialist ('red')? What are the consequences for Ireland, its classes, castes, and groups?
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July 11, 2001
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